In this multicenter randomized controlled trial, 349 participants with
chronic low back pain received either surgery or rehabilitation consisting
of exercise and cognitive behavioral therapy. Both groups reported similar
reductions in disability during two years of follow-up. No clear evidence
emerged that spinal fusion surgery was any more beneficial than intensive
rehabilitation. Koes BW. "Surgery versus intensive rehabilitation
programmes for chronic low back pain." BMJ. 330: 1220-1221, 2005.